Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) Resources

The Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) is an outcome measure intended for use in clinical studies. Outcome measures are important tools for spinal cord injury cure research because they provide a way of measuring change - which is necessary to evaluate and assess the impact of an intervention.

To facilitate the use of this tool in future clinical research studies, we are providing this material.

Instructions for the Use of the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II (WISCI II)

The information in this manual is based on current observations in clinical studies and recent publications. This manual will require ongoing modifications based on knowledge gained from future clinical trials as they occur. (Revised WISCI II Guide - Full Text PDF 241 kb)

WISCI II Scoring Sheet (Full Text PDF 83 kb)

  • Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II) Descriptors
  • Scoring Sheet for the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II)

WISCI - Full Text Articles

Ditunno JF, Jr., Ditunno PL, Graziani V, Scivoletto G, Bernardi M, Castellano V et al. Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI): an international multicenter validity and reliability study. Spinal Cord 2000; 38(4):234-243. (Full Text PDF 158 kb)

Dittuno PL, Dittuno JF, Jr. Walking index for spinal cord injury (WISCI II): scale revision. Spinal Cord 2001; 39(12):654-656. (Full Text PDF 121 kb)

Dobkin BH, Apple D, Barbeau H, Basso M, Behrman A, Deforge D et al. Methods for a randomized trial of weight-supported treadmill training versus conventional training for walking during inpatient rehabilitation after incomplete traumatic spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2003; 17(3):153-167. (Full Text PDF 159 kb)

Morganti B, Scivoletto G, Ditunno P, Ditunno JF, Molinari M. Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI): criterion validation. Spinal Cord 2005; 43(1):27-33. (Full Text PDF 145 kb)

Dobkin B, Apple D, Barbeau H, Basso M, Behrman A, Deforge D et al. Weight-supported treadmill vs over-ground training for walking after acute incomplete SCI. Neurology 2006; 66(4):484-493. (Full Text PDF 434 kb)

Ditunno PL, Patrick M, Stineman M, Morganti B, Townson AF, Ditunno JF. Cross-cultural differences in preference for recovery of mobility among spinal cord injury rehabilitation professionals. Spinal Cord 2006; 44(9):567-575. (Full Text PDF 393 kb)

Ditunno JF, Jr., Barbeau H, Dobkin BH, Elashoff R, Harkema S, Marino RJ et al. Validity of the walking scale for spinal cord injury and other domains of function in a multicenter clinical trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007; 21(6):539-550. (Full Text PDF 278 kb)

Kim MO, Burns AS, Ditunno JF, Jr., Marino RJ. The assessment of walking capacity using the walking index for spinal cord injury: self-selected versus maximal levels. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 88(6):762-767. (Full Text PDF 262 kb)

Ditunno JF, Scivoletto G, Patrick M, Biering-Sorensen F, Abel R, Marino, R. Validation of the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury in a US and European clinical population. Spinal Cord 2008; 46(3):181-188. (Full Text PDF 89 kb)

Ditunno PL, Patrick M, Stineman M, Ditunno JF. Who wants to walk? Preferences for recovery after SCI: a longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Spinal Cord 2008; 46(7):500-506. (Full Text PDF 485 kb)

Marino RJ, Scivoletto G, Patrick M, Tamburella F, Read MS, Burns AS et al. Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury Version 2 (WISCI-II) with repeatability of the 10-m walk time: inter- and intrarater reliabilities. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2010; 89(1):7-15. (Full Text PDF 492 kb)

Burns AS, Delparte JJ, Patrick M, Marino RJ, Ditunno JF. The reproducibility and convergent validity of the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) in chronic spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2011; 25(2):149-157. (Full Text PDF 399 kb)

Ditunno JF, Jr., Ditunno PL, Scivoletto G, Patrick M, Dijkers M, Barbeau H et al. The Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI/WISCI II): nature, metric properties, use and misuse. Spinal Cord 2013; 51(5):346-355. (Full Text PDF 417 kb)

Full text versions of Dr. Ditunno's articles appear here with permission of the journal Spinal Cord. The journal's website is www.nature.com/sc/index.html

WISCI Posters and Presentations

Burns AS, Coward C, Ditunno JF, Jr., Marino RJ. The relationship of ambulatory speed and efficiency to Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) level in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). 29th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Miami, FL, April 4-6, 2003. (PDF 502 kb)

Ditunno JF, Jr., Burns AS, West C, Patrick M. Clinical validation of the Walking Index in Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) scale: a preliminary report. 29th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Miami, FL, April 4-6, 2003. (PDF 454 kb)

Marino RJ, Burns AS, Coward C, Ditunno JF. Relationship between Walking Index in Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) level, neurological status and walking speed in SCI. 29th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Miami, FL, April 4-6, 2003. (PDF 493 kb)

Patrick M, Ditunno P, Ditunno JF, Jr. A comparison of spinal cord injury (SCI) consumers/staff preference for walking: a pilot study. 29th Annual Scientific Meeting of American Spinal Injury Association, Miami, FL, April 4-6, 2003. (PDF 473 kb)

Ditunno JF, Jr., Dobkin BH. Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI): response to change in a clinical trial (SCILT) and setting (TJU). Clinical Trials Workshop, International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis, Vancouver, Canada, February 20-21, 2004. (PDF 1,068 kb)

Ditunno JF, West C, Schmidt M, Patrick M. Validation and refinement of the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) in a clinical setting. 30th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Denver, CO, May 14-16, 2004.

Ditunno P, Patrick M, Morganti B, Scivoletto G, Ditunno JF, Jr. Cross-cultural differences in preference for recovery of mobility among spinal cord injury (SCI) staff. 30th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Denver, CO, May 14-16, 2004. (PDF 73 kb)

Patrick M, Ditunno P, Ditunno JF, Jr. Progress Report: preference for recovery of walking function in incomplete spinal cord injured (SCI) consumers at two-year follow-up. 30th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Denver, CO, May 14-16, 2004. (PDF 75 kb)

Ditunno JF, Jr., Patrick M, Ditunno P, Marino R, Schmidt M. Inter-rater reliability of photo documentation for scoring the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI). 31st Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Dallas, TX, May 12-14, 2005.

Kim MO, Marino RJ, Ditunno JF, Jr., Burns AS. Comparison of the self-selected to maximal levels of the Walking Index in Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI). 31st Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Dallas, TX, May 12-14, 2005. (PDF 183 kb)

Marino RJ, Kim MO, Burns AS. Construct validity of the Walking Index in chronic spinal cord injury. 31st Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Dallas, TX, May 12-14, 2005.

Burns AS, Kim MO, Marino RJ, Ditunno JF. Correlation of Borg rating to Physiologic Cost Index (PCI) and Total Heart Beat Index (THBI) for the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI). 45th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Spinal Cord Society and 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Boston, MA, June 23-28, 2006. (PDF 92 kb)

Ditunno JF, Dobkin B, Barbeau H, Harkema S, Marino RJ, Hauck W, SCILT Study Group. Prospective validity/response to change of the Walking Scale for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) in a Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial (MRCT). 45th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Spinal Cord Society and 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Boston, MA, June 23-28, 2006. (PDF 616 kb)

Ditunno P, Patrick M, Ditunno J. Preferences for recovery of walking function in incomplete spinal cord injured (SCI) consumers at 1, 2 and 5 years post injury. 45th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Spinal Cord Society and 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Boston, MA, June 23-28, 2006. (PDF 241 kb)

Patrick M, Ditunno J, Scivoletto G, Biering-Sorensen F, Abel R, Marino R. Validation of the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) in a USA and European clinical population. 45th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Spinal Cord Society and 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association, Boston, MA, June 23-28, 2006. (PDF 178 kb)

Marino R, Scivoletto G, Patrick M, Tamburella F, Schmidt-Read M, Burns A, Ditunno J. Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury: inter and intra - rater reliability. 34th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association and the 2008 Spine Trauma Study Group Symposium, Loews Coronado Bay Resort & Spa, Coronado, CA, June 19-22, 2008.

Schmidt-Read M. WISCI (Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury, version II) training. ChinaSCINet: Spinal Cord Injury Outcome Assessment Workshop, Beijing, China, April 24, 2009.

Patrick M, Ditunno P, Ditunno JF. Consumer preference in ranking walking function. 48th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Spinal Cord Society, Florence, Italy, October 21-24, 2009. (PDF 288 kb)

Savic G, Ditunno JF, Scivoletto G, Molinari M. Update on walking capacity measures, the ten meter walking test (10MWT), Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II) and the six minute walk test. 48th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Spinal Cord Society, Florence, Italy, October 21-24, 2009.

Marino RJ, Patrick M, Ditunno P, Ditunno J, Scivoletto G, Lam T. Consumer preference in ranking walking function utilizing the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI). 49th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Spinal Cord Society, New Delhi, India, October 29-31, 2010. (PDF 488 kb)

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