Alexander R. Vacarro, MD, FACS

Co-Associate Director for Acute Care,
Regional Spinal Cord Injury Center of the Delaware Valley
Co-Director of Reconstruction Spine Services
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital


Journal Articles

  1. Aarabi B, Mirvis S, Shanmuganathan K, Vaccaro AR, Holmes CJ, Akhtar-Danesh N et al. Comparative effectiveness of surgical versus nonoperative management of unilateral, nondisplaced, subaxial cervical spine facet fractures without evidence of spinal cord injury: clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine 2014; 20(3):270-277.
  2. Abel R, Cerrel Bazo HA, Kluger PJ, Selmi F, Meiners T, Vaccaro A et al. Management of degenerative changes and stenosis of the lumbar spinal canal secondary to cervical spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2003; 41(4):211-219.
  3. Ahuja CS, Schroeder GD, Vaccaro AR, Fehlings MG. Spinal cord injury - what are the controversies? J Orthop Trauma 2017; 31(Suppl 4):S7-S13.
  4. Amorosa LF, Vaccaro AR. Current concepts in cervical spine trauma. Instr Course Lect 2014; 63:255-262.
  5. An HS, Singh K, Vaccaro AR, Wang G, Yoshida H, Eck J et al. Biomechanical evaluation of contemporary posterior spinal internal fixation configurations in an unstable burst-fracture calf spine model: special references of hook configurations and pedicle screws. Spine 2004; 29(3):257-262.
  6. Anand N, Vaccaro AR, Lim MR, Lee JY, Arnold P, Harrop JS et al. Evolution of thoracolumbar trauma classification systems: assessing the conflict between mechanism and morphology of injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2006; 12(1):70-78.
  7. Anderson DG, Wierzbowski LR, Schwartz DM, Hilibrand AS, Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ. Pedicle screws with high electrical resistance: a potential source of error with stimulus-evoked EMG. Spine 2002; 27(14):1577-1581.
  8. Anderson DG, Sayadipour A, Limthongkul W, Martin ND, Vaccaro A, Harrop JS. Traumatic central cord syndrome: neurologic recovery after surgical management. Am J Orthop 2012; 41(8):E104-E108.
  9. Anderson KK, Tetreault L, Shamji MF, Singh A, Vukas RR, Harrop JS et al. Optimal timing of surgical decompression for acute traumatic central cord syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. Neurosurgery 2015; 77(Suppl 4):S15-S32.
  10. Anderson SD, Anderson DG, Vaccaro AR. Skeletal fracture demographics in spinal cord-injured patients. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2004; 124(3):193-196.
  11. Austin MS, Vaccaro AR, Brislin B, Nachwalter R, Hilibrand AS, Albert TJ. Image-guided spine surgery: a cadaver study comparing conventional open laminoforaminotomy and two image-guided techniques for pedicle screw placement in posterolateral fusion and nonfusion models. Spine 2002; 27(22):2503-2508.
  12. Bagan B, Patel N, Deutsch H, Harrop J, Sharan A, Vaccaro AR et al. Perioperative Complications of Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS): Comparison of MIS and Open Interbody Fusion Techniques. Surg Technol Int 2008; 17:281-286.
  13. Ball ST, Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ, Cotler JM. Injuries of the thoracolumbar spine associated with restraint use in head-on motor vehicle accidents. J Spinal Disord 2000; 13(4):297-304.
  14. Banco SP, Vaccaro AR, Blam O, Eck JC, Cotler JM, Hilibrand AS et al. Spine infections: variations in incidence during the academic year. Spine 2002; 27(9):962-965.
  15. Bellabarba C, Schildhauer TA, Vaccaro AR, Chapman JR. Complications associated with surgical stabilization of high-grade sacral fracture dislocations with spino-pelvic instability. Spine 2006; 31(11 Suppl):S80-S88.
  16. Blam OG, Vaccaro AR, Vanichkachorn JS, Albert TJ, Hilibrand AS, Minnich JM et al. Risk factors for surgical site infection in the patient with spinal injury. Spine 2003; 28(13):1475-1480.
  17. Bono CM, Vaccaro AR, Fehlings M, Fisher C, Dvorak M, Ludwig S et al. Measurement techniques for lower cervical spine injuries: consensus statement of the Spine Trauma Study Group. Spine 2006; 31(5):603-609.
  18. Bono CM, Vaccaro AR, Fehlings M, Fisher C, Dvorak M, Ludwig S et al. Measurement techniques for upper cervical spine injuries: consensus statement of the Spine Trauma Study Group. Spine 2007; 32(5):593-600.
  19. Brandoff JF, Silber JS, Vaccaro AR. Contemporary alternatives to synthetic bone grafts for spine surgery. Am J Orthop 2008; 37(8):410-414.
  20. Bridwell KH, Anderson PA, Boden SD, Vaccaro AR, Zigler JE. What's new in spine surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004; 86-A(7):1587-1596.
  21. Bridwell KH, Anderson PA, Boden SD, Vaccaro AR, Wang JC. What's new in spine surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005; 87(8):1892-1901.
  22. Bridwell KH, Anderson PA, Boden SD, Vaccaro AR, Wang JC. What's new in spine surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2008; 90(7):1609-1619.
  23. Bridwell KH, Anderson PA, Boden SD, Vaccaro AR, Wang JC. What's New in Spine Surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2012; 94(12):1140-1146.
  24. Bridwell KH, Anderson PA, Boden SD, Kim HJ, Vaccaro AR, Wang JC. What's New in Spine Surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2014; 96(12):1048-1054.
  25. Brown A, Stock G, Patel AA, Okafor C, Vaccaro A. Osteogenic protein-1 : a review of its utility in spinal applications. BioDrugs 2006; 20(4):243-251.
  26. Carrino JA, Manton GL, Morrison WB, Vaccaro AR, Schweitzer ME, Flanders AE. Posterior longitudinal ligament status in cervical spine bilateral facet dislocations. Skeletal Radiol 2006; 35(7):510-514.
  27. Coe JD, Vaccaro AR. Instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with bioresorbable polymer implants and iliac crest autograft. Spine 2005; 30(17 Suppl):S76-S83.
  28. Coe JD, Vaccaro AR, Dailey AT, Sasso RC, Ludwig SC, Harrop JS et al. Lateral mass screw fixation in the cervical spine. J Neurosurg Spine 2014; 20(5):592-596.
  29. Daffner SD, Vaccaro AR, Katsos MS, Grauer JN. Advances in operative stabilization for unstable cervical spine injuries: implications for early mobilization and rehabilitation. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2003; 9(1):1-13.
  30. Daffner SD, Hilibrand AS, Hanscom BS, Brislin BT, Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ. Impact of neck and arm pain on overall health status. Spine 2003; 28(17):2030-2035.
  31. Dvorak MF, Wing PC, Fehlings MG, Vaccaro AR, Itshayek E, Biering-Sorensen F et al. International spinal cord injury spinal column injury basic data set. Spinal Cord 2012; 50(11):817-821.
  32. Dvorak MF, Itshayek E, Fehlings MG, Vaccaro AR, Wing PC, Biering-Sorensen F et al. International spinal cord injury: spinal interventions and surgical procedures basic data set. Spinal Cord 2015; 53(2):155-165.
  33. Ehrler DM, Vaccaro AR. The use of allograft bone in lumbar spine surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2000;(371):38-45.
  34. Eslami V, Saadat S, Habibi AR, Vaccaro AR, Ghodsi SM, Rahimi-Movaghar V. Factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2012; 50(12):899-903.
  35. Fan D, Schwartz DM, Vaccaro AR, Hilibrand AS, Albert TJ. Intraoperative neurophysiologic detection of iatrogenic C5 nerve root injury during laminectomy for cervical compression myelopathy. Spine 2002; 27(22):2499-2502.
  36. Fassett DR, Harrop JS, Maltenfort M, Jeyamohan SB, Ratliff JD, Vaccaro AR et al. Mortality rates in geriatric patients with spinal cord injuries. J Neurosurg Spine 2007; 7(3):277-281.
  37. Fassett DR, Harrop JS, Vaccaro AR. Evidence on magnetic resonance imaging of Brown-Sequard spinal cord injury suffered indirectly from a gunshot wound. J Neurosurg Spine 2008; 8(3):286-287.
  38. Fassett DR, Dailey AT, Vaccaro AR. Vertebral artery injuries associated with cervical spine injuries: a review of the literature. J Spinal Disord Tech 2008; 21(4):252-258.
  39. Fayssoux RS, Tally W, Sanfilippo JA, Stock G, Ratliff JK, Vaccaro AR et al. Spinal injuries after falls from hunting tree stands. Spine J 2008; 8(3):522-528.
  40. Fehlings MG, Furlan JC, Massicotte EM, Arnold P, Aarabi B, Vaccaro AR et al. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of maximum canal compromise and spinal cord compression for evaluation of acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury. Spine 2006; 31(15):1719-1725.
  41. Fehlings MG, Vaccaro A, Wilson JR, Singh A, Cadotte W, Harrop JS et al. Early versus delayed decompression for traumatic cervical spinal cord injury: results of the Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (STASCIS). PLoS One 2012; 7(2):e32037.
  42. Fisher CG, Vaccaro AR, Prasad SK, Whang PG, Mulpuri K, Thomas KC et al. Evidence-based recommendations for spine surgery. Spine 2014; 39(1):E52-E59.
  43. France JC, Bono CM, Vaccaro AR. Initial radiographic evaluation of the spine after trauma: when, what, where, and how to image the acutely traumatized spine. J Orthop Trauma 2005; 19(9):640-649.
  44. Fukui Y, Krag M, Huston D, Ambrose T, Vaccaro AR. Halovest dynamic loads: full crossover comparison of three vest types. Spine 2002; 27(3):241-249.
  45. Gebauer G, Osterman M, Harrop J, Vaccaro A. Spinal cord injury resulting from injury missed on CT scan: the danger of relying on CT alone for collar removal. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2012; 470(6):1652-1657.
  46. Ghobrial GM, Maulucci CM, Maltenfort M, Dalyai RT, Vaccaro AR, Fehlings MG et al. Operative and nonoperative adverse events in the management of traumatic fractures of the thoracolumbar spine: a systematic review. Neurosurg Focus 2014; 37(1):E8.
  47. Glennie RA, Ailon T, Yang K, Batke J, Fisher CG, Dvorak MF et al. Incidence, impact, and risk factors of adverse events in thoracic and lumbar spine fractures: an ambispective cohort analysis of 390 patients. Spine J 2015; 15(4):629-637.
  48. Goldberg G, Albert TJ, Vaccaro AR, Hilibrand AS, Anderson DG, Wharton N. Short-term comparison of cervical fusion with static and dynamic plating using computerized motion analysis. Spine 2007; 32(13):E371-E375.
  49. Grauer JN, Beiner JM, Kwon BK, Vaccaro AR. Bone graft alternatives for spinal fusion. BioDrugs 2003; 17(6):391-394.
  50. Grauer JN, Vaccaro AR, Brusovanik G, Girardi FP, Silveri CP, Cammisa FP et al. Evaluation of a novel pedicle probe for the placement of thoracic and lumbosacral pedicle screws. J Spinal Disord Tech 2004; 17(6):492-497.
  51. Grauer JN, Shafi B, Hilibrand AS, Harrop JS, Kwon BK, Vaccaro AR et al. Proposal of a modified, treatment-oriented classification of odontoid fractures. Spine J 2005; 5(2):123-129.
  52. Grauer JN, Vaccaro AR, Beiner JM, Kwon BK, Hilibrand AS, Harrop JS et al. Similarities and differences in the treatment of spine trauma between surgical specialties and location of practice. Spine 2004; 29(6):685-696.
  53. Grauer JN, Beiner JM, Kwon B, Vaccaro AR. The evolution of allograft bone for spinal applications. Orthopedics 2005; 28(6):573-577.
  54. Greg AD, Voets C, Ropiak R, Betcher J, Silber JS, Vaccaro AR et al. Analysis of patient variables affecting neurologic outcome after traumatic cervical facet dislocation. Spine J 2004; 4(5):506-512.
  55. Gruskay J, Kepler C, Smith J, Radcliff K, Vaccaro A. Is surgical case order associated with increased infection rate after spine surgery? Spine 2012; 37(13):1170-1174.
  56. Gruskay J, Smith J, Kepler CK, Radcliff K, Harrop J, Albert T et al. The seasonality of postoperative infection in spine surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 2013; 18(1):57-62.
  57. Haddad S, Millhouse PW, Maltenfort M, Restrepo C, Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR. Diagnosis and neurologic status as predictors of surgical site infection in primary cervical spinal surgery. Spine J 2016; 16(5):632-642.
  58. Harris BM, Hilibrand AS, Nien YH, Nachwalter R, Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ et al. A comparison of three screw types for unicortical fixation in the lateral mass of the cervical spine. Spine 2001; 26(22):2427-2431.
  59. Harris BM, Hilibrand AS, Savas PE, Pellegrino A, Vaccaro AR, Siegler S et al. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: the effect of various instrumentation techniques on the flexibility of the lumbar spine. Spine 2004; 29(4):E65-E70.
  60. Harris EB, Massey P, Lawrence J, Rihn J, Vaccaro A, Anderson DG. Percutaneous techniques for minimally invasive posterior lumbar fusion. Neurosurg Focus 2008; 25(2):E12.
  61. Harrop JS, Vaccaro A, Przybylski GJ. Acute respiratory compromise associated with flexed cervical traction after C2 fractures. Spine 2001; 26(4):E50-E54.
  62. Harrop JS, Hunt GE, Jr., Vaccaro AR. Conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome as a result of traumatic injuries: management principles. Neurosurg Focus 2004; 16(6):e4.
  63. Harrop JS, Sharan A, Anderson G, Hillibrand AS, Albert TJ, Vaccaro AR et al. Failure of standard imaging to detect a cervical fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. Spine 2005; 30(14):E417-E419.
  64. Harrop JS, Vaccaro AR, Hurlbert RJ, Wilsey JT, Baron EM, Shaffrey CI et al. Intrarater and interrater reliability and validity in the assessment of the mechanism of injury and integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex: a novel injury severity scoring system for thoracolumbar injuries. J Neurosurg Spine 2006; 4(2):118-122.
  65. Harrop JS, Sharan AD, Vaccaro AR, Przybylski GJ. The cause of neurologic deterioration after acute cervical spinal cord injury. Spine 2001; 26(4):340-346.
  66. Harrop JS, Sharan AD, Scheid EH, Jr., Vaccaro AR, Przybylski GJ. Tracheostomy placement in patients with complete cervical spinal cord injuries: American Spinal Injury Association Grade A. J Neurosurg 2004; 100(1 Suppl):20-23.
  67. Harrop JS, Youssef JA, Maltenfort M, Vorwald P, Jabbour P, Vaccaro AR et al. Lumbar adjacent segment degeneration and disease after arthrodesis and total disc arthroplasty. Spine 2008; 33(15):1701-1707.
  68. Harrop JS, Naroji S, Maltenfort MG, Ratliff JK, Tjoumakaris SI, Frank B et al. Neurologic improvement after thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spinal cord (conus medullaris) injuries. Spine 2011; 36(1):21-25.
  69. Harrop JS, Ghobrial GM, Chitale R, Krespan K, Odorizzi L, Fried T et al. Evaluating initial spine trauma response: Injury time to trauma center in PA, USA. J Clin Neurosci 2014; 21(10):1725-1729.
  70. Helgeson MD, Gendelberg D, Sidhu GS, Anderson DG, Vaccaro AR. Management of cervical spine trauma: can a prognostic classification of injury determine clinical outcomes? Orthop Clin North Am 2012; 43(1):89-96.
  71. Henderson FC, Geddes JF, Vaccaro AR, Woodard E, Berry KJ, Benzel EC. Stretch-associated injury in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: new concept and review. Neurosurgery 2005; 56(5):1101-1113.
  72. Hilibrand AS, Schwartz DM, Sethuraman V, Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ. Comparison of transcranial electric motor and somatosensory evoked potential monitoring during cervical spine surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004; 86-A(6):1248-1253.
  73. Hilibrand AS, Balasubramanian K, Eichenbaum M, Thinnes JH, Daffner S, Vaccaro AR et al. The effect of anterior cervical fusion on neck motion. Spine 2006; 31(15):1688-1692.
  74. Joaquim AF, Patel AA, Vaccaro AR. Cervical injuries scored according to the Subaxial Injury Classification system: an analysis of the literature. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2014; 5(2):65-70.
  75. Joaquim AF, Lawrence B, Daubs M, Brodke D, Tedeschi H, Vaccaro AR et al. Measuring the impact of the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score among 458 consecutively treated patients. J Spinal Cord Med 2014; 37(1):101-106.
  76. Joaquim AF, Ghizoni E, Tedeschi H, Lawrence B, Brodke DS, Vaccaro AR et al. Upper cervical injuries - a rational approach to guide surgical management. J Spinal Cord Med 2014; 37(2):139-151.
  77. Kandziora F, Schleicher P, Schnake KJ, Reinhold M, Aarabi B, Bellabarba C et al. The AOSpine classification of thoraco-lumbar spine injuries. Z Orthop Unfall 2016; 154(1):35-42.
  78. Kang M, Vives MJ, Vaccaro AR. The halo vest: principles of application and management of complications. J Spinal Cord Med 2003; 26(3):186-192.
  79. Kepler CK, Wilkinson SM, Radcliff KE, Vaccaro AR, Anderson DG, Hilibrand AS et al. Cost-utility analysis in spine care: a systematic review. Spine J 2012; 12(8):676-690.
  80. Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR. Injuries and abnormalities of the cervical spine and return to play criteria. Clin Sports Med 2012; 31(3):499-508.
  81. Kepler CK, Yu AL, Gruskay JA, Delasotta LA, Radcliff KE, Rihn JA et al. Comparison of open and minimally invasive techniques for posterior lumbar instrumentation and fusion after open anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Spine J 2013; 13(5):489-497.
  82. Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR, Dibra F, Anderson DG, Rihn JA, Hilibrand AS et al. Neurologic injury because of trauma after type II odontoid nonunion. Spine J 2014; 14(6):903-908.
  83. Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR, Schroeder GD, Koerner JD, Vialle LR, Aarabi B et al. The thoracolumbar AOSpine injury score. Global Spine J 2016; 6(4):329-334.
  84. Keynan O, Fisher CG, Vaccaro A, Fehlings MG, Oner FC, Dietz J et al. Radiographic measurement parameters in thoracolumbar fractures: a systematic review and consensus statement of the spine trauma study group. Spine 2006; 31(5):E156-E165.
  85. Khazaeipour Z, Ahmadipour E, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Ahmadipour F, Vaccaro AR, Babakhani B. Association of pain, social support and socioeconomic indicators in patients with spinal cord injury in Iran. Spinal Cord 2017; 55(2):180-186.
  86. Kim DH, Vaccaro AR, Berta SC. Acute sports-related spinal cord injury: contemporary management principles. Clin Sports Med 2003; 22(3):501-512.
  87. Kim DH, Vaccaro AR, Henderson FC, Benzel EC. Molecular biology of cervical myelopathy and spinal cord injury: role of oligodendrocyte apoptosis. Spine J 2003; 3(6):510-519.
  88. Kim DH, Vaccaro AR, Affonso J, Jenis L, Hilibrand AS, Albert TJ. Early predictive value of supine and upright X-ray films of odontoid fractures treated with halo-vest immobilization. Spine J 2008; 8(4):612-618.
  89. Kuklo TR, Potter BK, Ludwig SC, Anderson PA, Lindsey RW, Vaccaro AR. Radiographic measurement techniques for sacral fractures consensus statement of the Spine Trauma Study Group. Spine 2006; 31(9):1047-1055.
  90. Kwon BK, Hilibrand AS, Malloy K, Savas PE, Silva MT, Vaccarp AR et al. A critical analysis of the literature regarding surgical approach and outcome for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disord Tech 2005; 18 Suppl:S30-S40.
  91. Kwon BK, Song F, Morrison WB, Grauer JN, Beiner JM, Vaccaro AR et al. Morphologic evaluation of cervical spine anatomy with computed tomography: anterior cervical plate fixation considerations. J Spinal Disord Tech 2004; 17(2):102-107.
  92. Kwon BK, Tetzlaff W, Grauer JN, Beiner J, Vaccaro AR. Pathophysiology and pharmacologic treatment of acute spinal cord injury. Spine J 2004; 4(4):451-464.
  93. Kwon BK, Berta S, Daffner SD, Vaccaro AR, Hilibrand AS, Grauer JN et al. Radiographic analysis of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disord Tech 2003; 16(5):469-476.
  94. Kwon BK, Vaccaro AR, Grauer JN, Fisher CG, Dvorak MF. Subaxial cervical spine trauma. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2006; 14(2):78-89.
  95. Kwon BK, Vaccaro AR, Grauer JN, Beiner JM. The use of rigid internal fixation in the surgical management of cervical spondylosis. Neurosurgery 2007; 60(1 Suppl):S118-S129.
  96. Lee JY, Zeiller S, Voltaggio L, Lim MR, Hilibrand AS, Vaccaro AR et al. Histological analysis of a displaced femoral ring allograft spacer filled with a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2-soaked collagen sponge. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005; 87(10): 2318-2322.
  97. Lee JY, Sharan A, Baron EM, Lim MR, Grossman E, Vaccaro AR et al. Quantitative prediction of spinal cord drift after cervical laminectomy and arthrodesis. Spine 2006; 31(16):1795-1798.
  98. Lee JY, Vaccaro AR, Lim MR, Oner FC, Hulbert RJ, Hedlund R et al. Thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score: a new paradigm for the treatment of thoracolumbar spine trauma. J Orthop Sci 2005; 10(6):671-675.
  99. Lehman RA, Jr., Vaccaro AR, Bertagnoli R, Kuklo TR. Standard and minimally invasive approaches to the spine. Orthop Clin North Am 2005; 36(3):281-292.
  100. Ludwig SC, Kramer DL, Balderston RA, Vaccaro AR, Foley KF, Albert TJ. Placement of pedicle screws in the human cadaveric cervical spine: comparative accuracy of three techniques. Spine 2000; 25(13):1655-1667.
  101. Moore TA, Vaccaro AR, Anderson PA. Classification of lower cervical spine injuries. Spine 2006; 31(11 Suppl):S37-S43.
  102. Musacchio M, Patel N, Bagan B, Deutsch H, Vaccaro AR, Ratliff J. Minimally invasive lumbar laminectomy via a dual-tube technique: evaluation in a cadaver model. Surg Neurol 2007; 67(4):348-352.
  103. Musacchio M, Patel N, Bagan B, Deutsch H, Vaccaro AR, Ratliff J. Minimally invasive thoracolumbar costotransversectomy and corpectomy via a dual-tube technique: evaluation in a cadaver model. Surg Technol Int 2007; 16:221-225.
  104. Nassr A, Lee JY, Dvorak MF, Harrop JS, Dailey AT, Vaccaro AR et al. Variations in surgical treatment of cervical facet dislocations. Spine 2008; 33(7):E188-E193.
  105. O'Boynick CP, Kurd MF, Darden BV, Vaccaro AR, Fehlings MG. Timing of surgery in thoracolumbar trauma: is early intervention safe? Neurosurg Focus 2014; 37(1):E7.
  106. Patel A, Smith HE, Radcliff K, Yadlapalli N, Vaccaro AR. Odontoid fractures with neurologic deficit have higher mortality and morbidity. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2012; 470(6):1614-1620.
  107. Patel A, Smith HE, Radcliff K, Yadlapalli N, Vaccaro AR. Odontoid fractures with neurologic deficit have higher mortality and morbidity. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2012; 470(6):1614-1620.
  108. Patel AA, Poelstra K, Whang PG, Kurd MF, Hilibrand A, Vaccaro AR. Esophageal injuries in anterior cervical surgery. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2006; 12(2):40-44.
  109. Patel AA, Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ, Hilibrand AS, Harrop JS, Anderson DG et al. The adoption of a new classification system: time-dependent variation in interobserver reliability of the thoracolumbar injury severity score classification system. Spine 2007; 32(3):E105-E110.
  110. Patel AA, Vaccaro AR, Martyak GG, Harrop JS, Albert TJ, Ludwig SC et al. Neurologic deficit following percutaneous vertebral stabilization. Spine 2007; 32(16):1728-1734.
  111. Ploumis A, Yadlapalli N, Fehlings MG, Kwon BK, Vaccaro AR. A systematic review of the evidence supporting a role for vasopressor support in acute SCI. Spinal Cord 2010; 48(5):356-362.
  112. Poelstra KA, Vaccaro AR, Rao S, Patel D, Brown AK, Whang PG et al. Emergency transport and radiographic evaluation following spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2006; 12(1):22-37.
  113. Radcliff K, Vaccaro A, Albert T, Rihn JA. Physiologic limitations and complications of spinal cord injury in the elderly population. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2010; 15(3):85-95.
  114. Radcliff K, Su BW, Kepler CK, Rubin T, Shimer AL, Rihn JA et al. Correlation of posterior ligamentous complex injury and neurological injury to loss of vertebral body height, kyphosis, and canal compromise. Spine 2012; 37(13):1142-1150.
  115. Radcliff KE, Kepler CK, Delasotta LA, Rihn JA, Harrop JS, Hilibrand AS et al. Current management review of thoracolumbar cord syndromes. Spine J 2011; 11(9):884-892.
  116. Rahimi-Movaghar V, Vaccaro AR, Mohammadi M. Efficacy of surgical decompression in regard to motor recovery in the setting of conus medullaris injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2006; 29(1):32-38.
  117. Rahimi-Movaghar V, Vaccaro AR. Management of sexual disorders in spinal cord injured patients. Acta Med Iran 2012; 50(5):295-299.
  118. Rampersaud RY, Fehlings MG, Harrop JS, Kuklo TR, Massicotte EM, Vaccaro AR et al. Validation of digital radiology measurement tools for quantitative spinal imaging. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2006; 12(1):11-21.
  119. Rihn JA, Anderson DT, Harris E, Lawrence J, Jonsson H, Vaccaro AR et al. A review of the TLICS system: a novel, user-friendly thoracolumbar trauma classification system. Acta Orthop 2008; 79(4):461-466.
  120. Riley LH, III, Skolasky RL, Albert TJ, Vaccaro AR, Heller JG. Dysphagia after anterior cervical decompression and fusion: prevalence and risk factors from a longitudinal cohort study. Spine 2005; 30(22):2564-2569.
  121. Risbud MV, Shapiro IM, Guttapalli A, Di Martino A, Danielson KG, Vaccaro AR et al. Osteogenic potential of adult human stem cells of the lumbar vertebral body and the iliac crest. Spine 2006; 31(1):83-89.
  122. Robbins MM, Vaccaro AR, Madigan L. The use of bioabsorbable implants in spine surgery. Neurosurg Focus 2004; 16(3):E1.
  123. Sadiqi S, Lehr AM, Post MW, Dvorak MF, Kandziora F, Rajasekaran S et al. Development of the AOSpine Patient Reported Outcome Spine Trauma (AOSpine PROST): a universal disease-specific outcome instrument for individuals with traumatic spinal column injury. Eur Spine J 2017; 26(5):1550-1557.
  124. Sanfilippo JA, Winegar CD, Harrop JS, Albert TJ, Vaccaro AR. All-terrain vehicles and associated spinal injuries. Spine 2008; 33(18):1982-1985.
  125. Savage KE, Oleson CV, Schroeder GD, Sidhu GS, Vaccaro AR. Neurogenic fever after acute traumatic spinal cord injury: a qualitative systematic review. Global Spine J 2016; 6(6):607-614.
  126. Sayadipour A, Mago R, Kepler CK, Chambliss RB, Certa KM, Vaccaro AR et al. Antidepressants and the risk of abnormal bleeding during spinal surgery: a case-control study. Eur Spine J 2012; 21(10):2070-2078.
  127. Schroeder GD, Hjelm N, Vaccaro AR, Weinstein MS, Kepler CK. The effect of increased T2 signal intensity in the spinal cord on the injury severity and early neurological recovery in patients with central cord syndrome. J Neurosurg Spine 2016; 24(5):792-796.
  128. Schroeder GD, Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR. The use of cell transplantation in spinal cord injuries. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2016; 24(4):266-275.
  129. Schwartz DM, Sestokas AK, Dormans JP, Vaccaro AR, Hilibrand AS, Flynn JM et al. Transcranial electric motor evoked potential monitoring during spine surgery: is it safe? Spine 2011; 36(13):1046-1049.
  130. Scuderi GJ, Brusovanik GV, Fitzhenry LN, Vaccaro AR. Is wound drainage necessary after lumbar spinal fusion surgery? Med Sci Monit 2005; 11(2):CR64-CR66.
  131. Scuderi GJ, Vaccaro AR, Fitzhenry LN, Greenberg S, Eismont F. Long-term clinical manifestations of retained bullet fragments within the intervertebral disk space. J Spinal Disord Tech 2004; 17(2):108-111.
  132. Scuderi GJ, Sherman AL, Brusovanik GV, Pahl MA, Vaccaro AR. Symptomatic cervical disc herniation following a motor vehicle collision: return to work comparative study of workers' compensation versus personal injury insurance status. Spine J 2005; 5(6):639-644.
  133. Sharif-Alhoseini M, Vaccaro A, Rahimi-Movaghar V. Evidence-based evaluation of early versus late surgical decompression in cervical spinal cord injury. Asian J Neurosurg 2017; 12(3):350.
  134. Sidhu GS, Ghag A, Prokuski V, Vaccaro AR, Radcliff KE. Civilian gunshot injuries of the spinal cord: a systematic review of the current literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2013; 471(12):3945-3955.
  135. Sidhu GS, Henkelman E, Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ, Hilibrand A, Anderson DG et al. Minimally invasive versus open posterior lumbar interbody fusion: a systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2014; 472(6):1792-1799.
  136. Silber JS, Anderson DG, Daffner SD, Brislin BT, Leland JM, Vaccaro AR et al. Donor site morbidity after anterior iliac crest bone harvest for single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Spine 2003; 28(2):134-139.
  137. Silber JS, Vaccaro AR, Green B. Summary statement: chronic long-term sequelae after spinal cord injury: post-traumatic spinal deformity and post-traumatic myelopathy associated with syringomyelia. [letter; comment]. Spine 2001; 26(24 Suppl):S128.
  138. Silber JS, Vaccaro AR. Summary statement: the role and timing of decompression in acute spinal cord injury: evidence-based guidelines. Spine 2001; 26(24 Suppl):S110.
  139. Silber JS, Hayes VM, Lipetz J, Vaccaro AR. Whiplash: fact or fiction? Am J Orthop 2005; 34(1):23-28.
  140. Sim E, Vaccaro AR, Berzlanovich A, Schwarz N, Sim B. In vitro genesis of subaxial cervical unilateral facet dislocations through sequential soft tissue ablation. Spine 2001; 26(12):1317-1323.
  141. Singh K, Vaccaro AR, Kim J, Lorenz EP, Lim TH, An HS. Biomechanical comparison of cervical spine reconstructive techniques after a multilevel corpectomy of the cervical spine. Spine 2003; 28(20):2352-2358.
  142. Singh K, Vaccaro AR, Kim J, Lorenz EP, Lim TH, An HS. Enhancement of stability following anterior cervical corpectomy: a biomechanical study. Spine 2004; 29(8):845-849.
  143. Singh K, Samartzis D, Heller JG, An HS, Vaccaro AR. The management of complex soft-tissue defects after spinal instrumentation. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2006; 88(1):8-15.
  144. Singh K, Vaccaro AR, Eichenbaum MD, Fitzhenry LN. The surgical management of thoracolumbar injuries. J Spinal Cord Med 2004; 27(2):95-101.
  145. Smith HE, Rynning RE, Okafor C, Zaslavsky J, Tracy JI, Vaccaro AR et al. Evaluation of neurologic deficit without apparent cause: the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. J Spinal Cord Med 2007; 30(5):509-517.
  146. Smith HE, Maltenfort M, Harrop JS, Bessey JT, Hong J, Yang N et al. Odontoid fractures and their management. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2010; 15(3):65-72.
  147. Stadhouder A, Oner FC, Wilson KW, Vaccaro AR, Williamson OD, Verbout AJ et al. Surgeon equipoise as an inclusion criterion for the evaluation of nonoperative versus operative treatment of thoracolumbar spinal injuries. Spine J 2008; 8(6):975-981.
  148. Stadhouder A, Oner FC, Wilson KW, Vaccaro AR, Williamson OD, Verbout AJ et al. Surgeon equipoise as an inclusion criterion for the evaluation of nonoperative versus operative treatment of thoracolumbar spinal injuries. Spine J 2008; 8(6):975-981.
  149. Stadhouder A, Buskens E, de Klerk LW, Verhaar JA, Dhert WA, Vaccaro AR et al. Traumatic thoracic and lumbar spinal fractures: operative or nonoperative treatment: comparison of two treatment strategies by means of surgeon equipoise. Spine 2008; 33(9):1006-1017.
  150. St John TA, Vaccaro AR, Sah AP, Schaefer M, Berta SC, Albert T et al. Physical and monetary costs associated with autogenous bone graft harvesting. Am J Orthop 2003; 32(1):18-23.
  151. Stock GH, Vaccaro AR, Brown AK, Anderson PA. Contemporary posterior occipital fixation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006; 88(7):1642-1649.
  152. Taylor BA, Vaccaro AR, Hilibrand AS, Zlotolow DA, Albert TJ. The risk of foraminal violation and nerve root impingement after anterior placement of lumbar interbody fusion cages. Spine 2001; 26(1):100-104.
  153. Vaccaro AR, Patel T, Fischgrund J, Anderson DG, Truumees E, Herkowitz H et al. A 2-year follow-up pilot study evaluating the safety and efficacy of op-1 putty (rhbmp-7) as an adjunct to iliac crest autograft in posterolateral lumbar fusions. Eur Spine J 2005; 14(7):623-629.
  154. Vaccaro AR, Lehman RA, Jr., Hurlbert RJ, Anderson PA, Harris M, Hedlund R et al. A new classification of thoracolumbar injuries: the importance of injury morphology, the integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex, and neurologic status. Spine 2005; 30(20):2325-2333.
  155. Vaccaro AR, Patel T, Fischgrund J, Anderson DG, Truumees E, Herkowitz H et al. A pilot safety and efficacy study of OP-1 putty (rhBMP-7) as an adjunct to iliac crest autograft in posterolateral lumbar fusions. Eur Spine J 2003; 12(5):495-500.
  156. Vaccaro AR, Harrop JS, Daffner SD, Berta SC. Acute cervical spine injuries in the athlete: diagnosis, management, and return-to-play. International SportMed Journal 2003; 4(1):1-5.
  157. Vaccaro AR, Yuan PS, Smith HE, Hott J, Sasso R, Papadopoulos S. An evaluation of image-guided technologies in the placement of anterior thoracic vertebral body screws in spinal trauma: a cadaver study. J Spinal Cord Med 2005; 28(4):308-313.
  158. Vaccaro AR, Watkins B, Albert TJ, Pfaff WL, Klein GR, Silber JS. Cervical spine injuries in athletes: current return-to-play criteria. Orthopedics 2001; 24(7):699-703.
  159. Vaccaro AR, Anderson DG, Patel T, Fischgrund J, Truumees E, Herkowitz HN et al. Comparison of OP-1 Putty (rhBMP-7) to iliac crest autograft for posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis: a minimum 2-year follow-up pilot study. Spine 2005; 30(24):2709-2716.
  160. Vaccaro AR, Madigan L, Ehrler DM. Contemporary management of adult cervical odontoid fractures. Orthopedics 2000; 23(10):1109-1113.
  161. Vaccaro AR, Kim DH, Brodke DS, Harris M, Chapman JR, Schildhauer T et al. Diagnosis and management of sacral spine fractures. Instr Course Lect 2004; 53:375-385.
  162. Vaccaro AR, Kim DH, Brodke DS, Harris M, Chapman JR, Schildhauer T et al. Diagnosis and management of thoracolumbar spine fractures. Instr Course Lect 2004; 53:359-373.
  163. Vaccaro AR, Klein GR, Thaller JB, Rushton SA, Cotler JM, Albert TJ. Distraction extension injuries of the cervical spine. J Spinal Disord 2001; 14(3):193-200.
  164. Vaccaro AR, Madigan L, Bauerle WB, Blescia A, Cotler JM. Early halo immobilization of displaced traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis. Spine 2002; 27(20):2229-2233.
  165. Vaccaro AR, Lim MR, Lee JY. Indications for surgery and stabilization techniques of the occipito-cervical junction. Injury 2005; 36(Suppl 2):S44-S53.
  166. Vaccaro AR, Madigan L, Schweitzer ME, Flanders AE, Hilibrand AS, Albert TJ. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of soft tissue disruption after flexion-distraction injuries of the subaxial cervical spine. Spine 2001; 26(17):1866-1872.
  167. Vaccaro AR, Silber JS. Post-traumatic spinal deformity. Spine 2001; 26(24 Suppl):S111-S118.
  168. Vaccaro AR, Anderson DG, Toth CA. Recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (bone morphogenetic protein-7) as an osteoinductive agent in spinal fusion. Spine 2002; 27(16 Suppl 1):S59-S65.
  169. Vaccaro AR, Baron EM, Sanfilippo J, Jacoby S, Steuve J, Grossman E et al. Reliability of a novel classification system for thoracolumbar injuries: the Thoracolumbar Injury Severity Score. Spine 2006; 31(11 Suppl):S62-S69.
  170. Vaccaro AR, Madigan L. Spinal applications of bioabsorbable implants. J Neurosurg 2002; 97(4 Suppl):407-412.
  171. Vaccaro AR, Madigan L. Spinal applications of bioabsorbable implants. Orthopedics 2002; 25(10 Suppl):s1115-s1120.
  172. Vaccaro AR, Lim MR, Hurlbert RJ, Lehman RA, Jr., Harrop J, Fisher DC et al. Surgical decision making for unstable thoracolumbar spine injuries: results of a consensus panel review by the spine trauma study group. J Spinal Disord Tech 2006; 19(1):1-10.
  173. Vaccaro AR, Nachwalter RS, Klein GR, Sewards JM, Albert TJ, Garfin SR. The significance of thoracolumbar spinal canal size in spinal cord injury patients. Spine 2001; 26(4):371-376.
  174. Vaccaro AR, Zeiller SC, Hulbert RJ, Anderson PA, Harris M, Hedlund R et al. The thoracolumbar injury severity score: a proposed treatment algorithm. J Spinal Disord Tech 2005; 18(3):209-215.
  175. Vaccaro AR, Cirello J. The use of allograft bone and cages in fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 2002; 394:19-26.
  176. Vaccaro AR, Singh K, Haid R, Kitchel S, Wuisman P, Taylor W et al. The use of bioabsorbable implants in the spine. Spine J 2003; 3(3):227-237.
  177. Vaccaro AR, Sharan AD, Tuan RS, Kang JD, An HS, Morone MA et al. The use of biologic materials in spinal fusion. Orthopedics 2001; 24(2):191-197.
  178. Vaccaro AR, Madigan L, Fitzhenry L, Eichenbaum M, Robbins M. The use of bioresorbable instrumentation in treatment of cervical degenerative and traumatic disorders. Current Opinion in Orthopaedics 2004; 15(3):192-195.
  179. Vaccaro AR, Carrino JA, Venger BH, Albert T, Kelleher PM, Hilibrand A et al. Use of a bioabsorbable anterior cervical plate in the treatment of cervical degenerative and traumatic disc disruption. J Neurosurg 2002; 97(4 Suppl):473-480.
  180. Vaccaro AR, Venger BH, Kelleher PM, Singh K, Carrino JA, Albert T et al. Use of a bioabsorbable anterior cervical plate in the treatment of cervical degenerative and traumatic disk disruption. Orthopedics 2002; 25(10 Suppl):S1191-S1199.
  181. Vaccaro AR, Whang PG, Patel T, Phillips FM, Anderson DG, Albert TJ et al. The safety and efficacy of OP-1 (rhBMP-7) as a replacement for iliac crest autograft for posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis: minimum 4-year follow-up of a pilot study. Spine J 2008; 8(3):457-465.
  182. Vaccaro AR, Fisher CG, Angevine PD, Patel AA, Mulpuri K, Thomas KC et al. Evidence-based recommendations for spine surgery. Spine 2012; 37(15):E875-E882.
  183. Vaccaro AR, Koerner JD, Radcliff KE, Oner FC, Reinhold M, Schnake KJ et al. AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system. Eur Spine J 2016; 25(7):2173-2184.
  184. Vaccaro AR, Schroeder GD, Kepler CK, Cumhur OF, Vialle LR, Kandziora F et al. The surgical algorithm for the AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system. Eur Spine J 2016; 25(4):1087-1094.
  185. Whang PG, Vaccaro AR. Spinal pedicle fixation revisited: the role of x-rays and other surgical factors. Spine 2006; 31(6):717-721.
  186. Whang PG, Vaccaro AR, Poelstra KA, Patel AA, Anderson DG, Albert TJ et al. The influence of fracture mechanism and morphology on the reliability and validity of two novel thoracolumbar injury classification systems. Spine 2007; 32(7):791-795.
  187. Whang PG, Lim MR, Sasso RC, Skelton A, Brown ZB, Vaccaro AR et al. Financial incentives for lumbar surgery: a critical analysis of physician reimbursement for decompression and fusion procedures. J Spinal Disord Tech 2008; 21(6):381-386.
  188. Whang PG, Vaccaro AR. Thoracolumbar fractures: anterior decompression and interbody fusion. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2008; 16(7):424-431.
  189. Wilson JR, Grossman RG, Frankowski RF, Kiss A, Davis AM, Kulkarni AV et al. A clinical prediction model for long-term functional outcome after traumatic spinal cord injury based on acute clinical and imaging factors. J Neurotrauma 2012; 29(13):2263-2271.
  190. Wimberley DW, Vaccaro AR, Goyal N, Harrop JS, Anderson DG, Albert TJ et al. Acute quadriplegia following closed traction reduction of a cervical facet dislocation in the setting of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: case report. Spine 2005; 30(15):E433-E438.
  191. Wimberly DW, Goyal N, Goins ML, Zeiller SC, Yuan PS, Vaccaro AR. Advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation and their impact on the spinal cord injury rehabilitation process. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2004; 10(2):35-49.
  192. Wood KB, Khanna G, Vaccaro AR, Arnold PM, Harris MB, Mehbod AA. Assessment of two thoracolumbar fracture classification systems as used by multiple surgeons. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005; 87(7):1423-1429.
  193. Yadla S, Lebude B, Tender GC, Sharan AD, Harrop JS, Vaccaro AR et al. Traumatic spondyloptosis of the thoracolumbar spine. J Neurosurg Spine 2008; 9(2):145-151.
  194. Zigler JE, Anderson PA, Boden SD, Bridwell KH, Vaccaro AR. What's new in spine surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2003; 85-A(8):1626-1636.
  195. Zohrabian VM, Parker L, Harrop JS, Vaccaro AR, Marino RJ, Flanders AE. Can anatomic level of injury on MRI predict neurological level in acute cervical spinal cord injury? Br J Neurosurg 2016; 30(2):204-210.
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